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Introduction

In April 2000 the Governor's Office and Illinois EPA created the Green Communities Demonstration Grant Program. The purpose of the program is to facilitate and support community based environmental protection strategies that bring together diverse interests, address environmental issues in a collaborative manner, and encourage interaction among all levels of government agencies.

The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), in cooperation with the Illinois Waste Management and Research Center, and the Departments of Natural Resources, Agriculture, Commerce, and Community Affairs entered into partnership agreements with communities in the State.  These communities would undertake an environmental visioning process that builds their capacity to protect the environment while enhancing community well being.

In May 2002 the Village of Homer Glen was one of sixteen communities in Illinois to be awarded the Green Communities Demonstration Grant.  The Green Communities Demonstration Grant Steering Committee was formed in Homer Glen and soon began Homer Glen's Green Visioning Program.  The two-year grant process emphasized and relied heavily on input from the stakeholders of the Homer Glen community.  In 2005, the Homer Glen Board of Trustees formally adopted the Green Vision Statement and Goals for the Village of Homer Glen.

Please read the Green Vision Executive Summary which concisely outlines the process and recommended actions.

Scroll down the page to view some of the key elements involved in the Green Vision process or click on any of the links in the left column to jump to a particular section.

 

Distribution Letter - Green Vision of the Homer Glen Community

Distribution of the Executive Summary and Appropriate Materials
December 1, 2005

"The Green Vision of the Homer Glen Community" is a publication developed during the process of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) Green Communities Demonstration Project grant for which the Village of Homer Glen was awarded $110,000. The process took two years to complete during which time there was input from the community and assistance from Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission as facilitator.

As the "Green Vision of the Homer Glen Community" provides direction for the Village, it is not intended to be placed on a shelf to collect dust and be forgotten. The intention as described by IEPA is for the information to be used by committees, task forces, trustees and staff as a guide for the future direction of the Village when planning projects, initiating programs, reviewing developers' proposals, and finalizing plans. The program helps the Village identify environmental challenges and plan for a sustainable future. The Comprehensive Land Use Plan states that the "Green Vision and the accompanying goals and objectives should be considered as they relate to future growth and development as well as the maintenance and enhancement of the existing image and character of the community."

Topics were carefully selected, reviewed and discussed at workshops attended by the residents and stakeholders. The results are the composite of their ideas, their vision, and their concerns for the future as Homer Glen continues to develop.

Goals and objectives are included in the "Executive Summary" for the topics of Community Image and Character, Natural Resources, Habitat and Wildlife, Open Space, Parks and Recreation, Transportation, and Water Resources. Bench marks for measurements within one year, within five years, and within ten to twenty years as stated enable the Village to measure implementation and progress. Next Steps also listed in the Executive Summary elaborate on the direction necessary to the implementation process.

In 2005, the Village Board formally adopted the Green Vision Statement and Goals for the Village of Homer Glen. As implementation is the measurement that determines the success of the "Green Vision of the Homer Glen Community", we encourage those working as volunteers and staff to refer to the "Green Vision" as their guide when planning in 2006 and future years.

All committees and task force members will receive a copy of the "Executive Summary" in color. Copies in black and white will include the addition of recommended actions for each goal as a guide in their planning process. A large spiral bound booklet called the "Green Vision of the Homer Glen Community" includes the two year grant process from beginning to end and is available for viewing at the Village office. Each Chairman will receive a CD. The Village office has copies available for viewing. Distribution of materials will also include those individuals and organizations that are acknowledged in the "Green Vision" publication.

"THE QUALITY OF OUR LIVES
IS DEPENDENT ON THE QUALITY OF OUR ENVIRONMENT
WHICH IS DEPENDENT UPON THE QUALITY OF LAND USE"

On Behalf of the Green Vision Committee,
Margaret Sabo, Trustee

 

Acknowledgements

Excerpt from Green Vision Final Report, June 2004
Section 2, Acknowledgements.

Homer Glen Village Board:

  • Russ Petrizzo, Village Mayor
  • Christine Luttrell, Village Clerk
  • Brian Andrews, Trustee
  • Marcia De Vivo, Trustee
  • Robert Hughes, Trustee
  • Mary Niemiec, Trustee
  • Margaret Sabo, Trustee
  • Dale Vogelsanger, Trustee

Green Communities Demonstration Grant Steering Committee:

  • Margaret Sabo, Homer Glen Village Trustee, Parks & Environment Committee
  • Laurel Ward, Former Village Trustee, Community & Civic Involvement Committee
  • Pam Meyers, Homer Township Trustee
  • Bob Jankowski, Natural Resources Conservation Service (U.S.D.A.)
  • Marcia De Vivo, Homer Glen Village Trustee, Long Run Creek Watershed Planning Committee
  • Dan Lobbes, The Conservation Foundation
  • Dave Pronesky, Homer Glen Green Vision Grant Coordinator
  • Sheree Kozel-La Ha, Homer Township Library
  • Nancy Herberg, Homer Glen Assistant Volunteer Coordinator
  • Sue Steilen, Homer Glen Parks & Environment Committee
  • Dwight Johnson, Homer Glen Village Manager (Ex Officio, April 2004 to July 2004)
  • Glenn Spachman, Homer Glen Village Manager (Ex Officio, August 2002 to April 2004)

Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission:

  • John Paige, AICP, Director of Planning Services (August 2002 to December 2004)
  • Dennis Dreher, Principal Environmental Engineer (August 2002 to December 2004)
  • Kerry Leigh, ASLA, Project Manager and Environmental and Natural Resources Director (February 2004 to June 2004)
  • Alan Manoser, AICP, Planner (January 2004 to June 2004)
  • Kathy Maynard, Communications Director (February 2004 to June 2004)

Special Acknowledgements to:

  • Conservation Design Forum: Dave Yocca, Jay Womack, Charles McGhee Hassrick
  • Criterion Planners, Engineers, Inc.: Eliot Allen
  • Cross of Glory Lutheran Church
  • Enviro Impact Solutions: Jeff Swano
  • Farr and Associates: Doug Farr, Christina Anderson
  • Homer Junior High School
  • Homer Township Chamber of Commerce
  • Kane County Director of Development: Phil Bus
  • Publication Design: Leslie Bolin
  • Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service
  • Technical Advisor: Patti Maska
  • Residents and Stakeholders of the Homer Glen Community
  • Sheaffer International, Ltd.: John R. Sheaffer
  • The Cadmus Group Inc.: Bill Ward
  • The Conservation Foundation

Grateful for Support from:

  • Chicago Wilderness
  • Forest Preserve District of Will County
  • Homer Glen Community & Civic Involvement Committee
  • Homer Glen Land Use Representative
  • Homer Glen Parks and Environment Committee
  • Homer Glen Plan Commission
  • Homer Glen Zoning Commission
  • Homer Community Consolidated School District 33C
  • Homer Township
  • Homer Township Chamber of Commerce
  • Homer Township Highway Department
  • Homer Township Public Library
  • Long Run Creek Watershed Planning Committee
  • Mayor Russ Petrizzo
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service
  • Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission
  • Openlands Project
  • State Representative Brent Hassert
  • State Representative Renee Kosel
  • State Senator Christine Radogno
  • State Senator William Mahar
  • The Conservation Foundation
  • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Will County School District 92
  • Will County School District 92 Foundation for Educational Excellence
  • Will County Land Use Department
  • Will/South Cook Soil & Water Conservation District
 

Stakeholders

Excerpt from Green Vision Final Report, June 2004, Section 6, Documentation.

The following listing was developed from the sign-in sheets from the kickoff meeting, each of the three visioning sessions, the Conservation Design Workshop, the Conservation Design Field Tour, and the Finale. Thank You to all participants in the Green Vision process.

Christina Anderson
Brian Andrews
James Armstrong
Bernie Argao
Myrna Argao
Janice C. Balice
Rose Balich
Steve Balich
Catherine Baranko
John Barry
Lang Beiswanger
Abnash Bhatti
Daljeet Bhatti
Jim Bilotta
Barb Boze
Anello Bragalone
Betty Bragalone
Pat Brunner
Ralph Brunner
Donna Buck
Sam Buck
Austin Buckley
Ellen Buckley
Quinn Buckley
T.J. Buckley
Tom Buckley
Bob Bufka
JoAnne Bufka
Chris Burke
Cathe Byers
Cole Campbell
John Carlson
Laverne Carlson
Nancy Carlson
Jean Cavanaugh
Kyle Cavanaugh
Maggie Cavanaugh
Connie Cesario
Tony Cesario
Debbie Cosgrove
Michael Costa
Bill Crowley
Barb Cryer
Stephen Dalton
Judy Danalewich
Rich Danalewich
Jeanette Daubavas
Billy Davis
Marcia De Vivo
Mike De Vivo
Steve Dignan
Jenny Disabato
Bob Doherty
Dennis Dreher
Len Drenc
Dave Drown
Penny Drown
Stuart Dykstra
Adeline Eiskamp
Charles Englund
Frank J. Enright
Ceil G. Enright
Bill Eyring
Wayne Fairbrother
Doug Farr
John Fay
Richard Feifar
Chris Finnegan
Mike Finnegan
Marty Fitzgerald
Shirley Fitzgerald
Charles Fletcher
Jim Ford
Aaron Fundich
John Gallagher
Dawn Garr
Garrett Family
Leslie Gaul
John Gedwill
Julie Gedwill
Kevin Gleewe
Ray Golomb
Jim Gow
Doug Harris
Beryl Hartman
Tom Hartman
Charles McGhee Hassrick
Debbie Hay
Chere Hayes
Doris Hehl
Robert Hehl
Nancy Herberg
Helen Hennessey
Bud Herman
Lynne Herman
Lori Heringa
Bay-yu Hilgart
Mike Hilgart
Pat Hilton
Irene Hogstrom
Leo Howaden
Marion Hoyda
James Hughes
Judy Hughes
Robert Hughes
Charmaine Ingram
Adam James
Kim James
Julis Janisch
Paula Janssen
Tom Jay
Calvin Johnson
Connie Johnson
Dwight Johnson
Jill Johnson
Pam Johnson
Phil Jones
Terri Jones
John Kalata
Virginia Kalata
Henry Kall
Lucy Kall
Mary Beth Kamba
Georgene Karlow
William Karn
Jim Kleinwachter
Jeff Kline
Florence Knapik
Sarah Koepke
Kathleen Konicki
Al Korzonas
Sylvia Krepton
Pat Krasnodebski
Bernie Kucharski
Katie Kuropas
Glenn Larson
Sharon Larson
Sheri Law
Lisewski
Dan Lobbes
John Lobick
Ken Lomasney
Tom Lorang
Fr. Thomas Loya
Dana Ludwig
Jim Ludwig
Pat Ludwig
Dale Lundy
Don Lundy
Christine Luttrell
Dick Macknick
La Verne Macknick
Diane Maenza
Richard Maier
Bob Main
Jack Martin
Joe Maska
Patti Maska
Joan Mastej
Stan Mastej
Don Matthews
Pat Matthews
James McAndrew
Neeloo McAndrew
Deb McCarthy
John McCarthy
Larry McClellan
Joan McGowan
Mr. Merda
Mrs. Merda
Marion Meyers
Pam Meyers
Pallab Midya
Don Mitchell
Helen Mitidiero
Eileen Milkovich
Greg Milkovich
Bob Moses
Karen Mraz
Paul Muehlnickel
Shannon Muehlnickel
Jeanne Muelner
Bob Mustari
Cathy Mustari
Christy Nahser
Bob Najewski
Diane Najewski
Mary Niemiec
Lin Norling
Debra Norvil
Joyce O"Neil
Jeni Ozark
John Paige
Andy Panelli
Dana Parry
Ashok Patel
Russ Petrizzo
Chuck Phillips
Angela Plebanek
Paul Plebanek
Dorothy Polaski
Ksenia Rudensink
Margaret Sabo
Nick Von Cile Schuit
Cloyd Selby
Pat Selby
Brian Smith
Noreen Smyth
Eileen Sobczak
Jim Sobczak
John Sobczak
Glenn Spachman
Kurt Spooner
Scott Steele
Dan Steilen
Sue Steilen
Herb Stephens
Mrs. Herb Stephens
Brian Stevens
Clyde Stevens
Julie Stoklosa
Dalia Stropus
Sue Strzyz
Ron Svara
Jeff Swano
John W. Szela
Susan Szela
Chi M Tang
Jan Taylor
John Taylor
Marty Thomas
Ron Thomas
Barbara Tishuk
Brian Tishuk
Eva Marie Topper
Peter Tsong
Joanna Tsong
Charles Ungaro
Racquel Ungaro
Rudy Visser
Dale Vogelsanger
Kim Vogelsanger
Bill Ward
Laurel Ward
Richard Weeks
Eveyn Walano
Beverly Weisner
Anthony Weisner
Cy Wochok
Robert Wojcik
Diane Wolinski
Janice Wood
Mike Wood
Mark Yunker
Glen Zaloudek
Millie Zaloudek
 

Public Relations

Excerpt from Green Vision Final Report, June 2004
Section 6, Documentation.

The immediate benefit of the Green Communities Demonstration Program is the fact that our entire community is talking about the opportunity for the green vision as a valuable tool for sustainability to guide the future development in the Village of Homer Glen.

We have also seen a shift in the thinking of developers and local officials in supporting more environmentally sensitive plans for positive results in the decision making and implementation process.

- Press release to the Illinois EPA

The Steering Committee developed a Public Relations Program designed to educate the community about the Green Vision process and to promote participation by stakeholders. The PR program included a Media Relations Plan and a Community Awareness Plan.

The media campaign was successful with numerous articles appearing in local papers. The newspaper coverage helped educate the community about the Visioning Process. Both the quantity and quality of newspaper articles can be attributed to a good working relationship between the Village and local reporters. Additionally, the preparation of a Media Kit, distributed to local reporters prior to the kickoff, was well received. It provided accurate background information reporters could use in their articles.

The Community Awareness Plan included direct distribution of information by the Village. The mailing of invitations to visioning events was the most effective method of gaining stakeholder participation (as reported by participants). Efforts to include articles in various community publications provided stakeholders with information about importance of the Visioning Process. These articles helped prime potential stakeholders making them more receptive to accepting invitations to participate. Articles appeared in a Chicago Wilderness Publication, and in the following newsletters of Homer Township, Homer Township Chamber of Commerce, Homer Township Library, Village of Homer Glen, The Conservation Foundation, Will/South Cook Soil and Water Conservation District, and in a special mailing by Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Information about the Visioning Process was also included in the Village newsletter and website. These information outlets kept community members who were unable to participate informed about the proceedings and outcomes.

 

Listing of Environmental Issues Developed

Excerpt from Green Vision Final Report, June 2004
Section 5.2, First Workshop.

The following is a compiled list of the environmental issues developed by the stakeholders at the first session. The number of "dots" represents the number of "votes" given each issue, which indicates the relative importance given to each issue by the participants.

Issues:  Loss of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Habitat

  • Loss of wildlife, mature trees, habitat, open space (31 dots)
  • Need for "open" environment - avoid density (5 dots)
  • Lack of definition of open space acreage; how much? (4 dots)
  • Squeezing out the wilderness (3 dots)
  • Lack of wildlife corridors (2 dots)
  • Secure more open space (2 dots)
  • Too much clear cutting w/development
  • Improve wildlife mgmt in development planning

Issues:  Character/Attitude

  • Loss of rural character (13 dots)
  • Loss of dark skies - light pollution/ noise pollution (11 dots)
  • Lack of community identity (4 dots)
  • Heritage communities (4 dots)
  • Loss of farmland (4 dots)
  • Too much impervious surface (3 dots)
  • Lack of respect for environment (2 dots)
  • Unfamiliarity with natural resource issues among youth
  • Lack of pride of community

Issues:  Recreation

  • Not enough recreational public areas, parks (9 dots)
  • Trails connecting spaces, schools, wetlands (9 dots)
  • Need more parkland - parkland is not balanced throughout the community (4 dots)
  • Open lands - make more accessible trails, etc. (3 dots)
  • Lack of greenways and trails (2 dots)
  • More small "natural neighborhood parks"
  • Open space for public events (4 dots)

Issues:  Flooding

  • Flooding/Stormwater management (12 dots)
  • Flooding in Chickasaw Subdivision (2 dots)
  • Maintain existing storm water facilities 151st and Parker

Issues:  Schools / Education Funding

  • Funding for schools - lack of government support
  • Neighboring community impacts especially schools

Issues:  Transportation/Traffic Congestion

  • Traffic congestion (15 dots)
  • Lack of alternate transportation modes: sidewalks and pathways (9 dots)
  • Lack of Transportation Planning (5 dots)
  • Access to/enhance public transportation (4 dots)
  • Impact of roadway expansions (4 dots)
  • Need major roads that can handle increased future traffic (3 dots)
  • Rural street enter-sections vs. urban xsections (2 dots)
  • Traffic impacts (issues - noise, environment/air, safety, etc.)
  • Environmental impacts of long commutes
  • Too many parking lots
  • Make no changes to Parker Rd south of 159th
  • Reduce speeds around forest preserves and other open space
  • I-355 and Bruce Road Strategic Regional Artery - Environment impacts

Issues:  Utilities

  • Lack of sewage treatment capacity
  • Septic system problems

Issues:  Drinking Water

  • Maintaining aquifer for diminishing supply (4 dots)
  • Crisis in well water (purifier)
  • Better management of aquifers

Issues:  Housing

  • Housing density (4 dots)
  • Resource efficient residential construction (lack of)

Issues:  Growth/Management

  • Development in the remaining wooded areas (mature) (6 dots)
  • Growth (4 dots)
  • Encroaching of next door communities (4 dots)
  • Look at "conservation design" "cluster development" (4 dots)
  • Development is too rapid - no chance to develop infrastructure and services (4 dots)
  • Avoid environmentally unfriendly development (3 dots)
  • Lot sizes: loss of large lots (2 dots)
  • Big lot size does not equal open space (2 dots)
  • Retain the open area on 151st west of Parker to Gougar (2 dots)
  • Keep open space areas within the developed areas (2 dots)
  • Large lot size/pattern (1 acre) (2 dots)
  • Development (2 dots)
  • Development near power lines
  • Save 147th and Lemont on the NW corner
  • Reclamation facility on South Bell road and 163rd
  • Too much development on small lots with no open space
  • Subdividing larger lots to smaller ones
  • Need for protection of 40 acres woods south of 135th, west of Parker
  • Work against development of Leona's prop. Parker and 131st (dense dev)
  • Lack of control of destiny
  • Competition with surrounding communities
  • Hazard materials - here and going through and result of growth
  • Need "watch-dog" / maintaining development

Issues:  Commercial/Industrial Development

  • Balance commercial and residential development.   Residential is now ahead of commercial (3 dots)
  • Low quality of commercial development amount, management, type
  • Fear that commercial will take over for environment concerns
  • Industrial pollution
  • Lack integrated landscaping, stormwater management in commercial development

Issues:  Water Pollution/Water Impact

  • Preservation of all wetlands, loss of wetlands (6 dots)
  • Water and groundwater pollution (4 dots)
  • Poorly developed detention ponds (4 dots)
  • Erosion/erosion of stream banks (3 dots)
  • Water drainage (2 dots)
  • Stream degradation, pollution (2 dots)
  • Long run creek water shed quality (2 dots)
  • Retention of water
  • Development on lowlands/wetlands
  • Building too close to streams
  • Water control and quality
  • Impervious material
 

Materials for the Development of Goals Statements

The following is a list of issues used to define goals statements developed by the stakeholders at the first session. The number of "dots" represents the number of "votes" given each issue, which indicates the relative importance given to each issue by the participants.

Community Character

  • Maintain rural character/quality (9 dots)
  • Widely recognize private farmers as valuable assets to the community (5 dots)
  • Homer Glen has a unique characteristic that draws people (4 dots)
  • A town known for its community involvement (3 dots)
  • Change public perceptions that large lots equal open space (3 dots)
  • Balance between economic development and rural charm
  • Preserve the existing character
  • Generate community with highest levels of harmony and security
  • A town center, with small town character, with park, recreation center, municipal building, accessible by walking or cycling (10 dots)
  • Village thought of as a well-planned community with a reputation for valuing and preserving natural resources (7 dots)
  • Housing for seniors
  • Diverse housing

Transportation

  • A transportation plan to address congestion (10 dots)
  • A network of non-motorized transportation alternatives, paths, greenways, walkways (5 dots)
  • Tree-lined streets, natural buffers for transportation corridors (2 dots)
  • A system of streets and highways only beneficial to Homer Glen

Aesthetics

  • Homer Glen at night - dark island in sea of light (6 dots)
  • Integrated public art into community spaces. (3 dots)
  • Minimize strip malls/neon signs

Recreation

  • Have a variety of active and passive park and recreation areas (17 dots)
  • The community is connected by trails and greenways and connected to other towns by trails (7 dots)
  • A trail system so people would not need to drive to trail heads, but instead could bike or take a horse from community to community. (4 dots)
  • Mechanisms to develop and maintain parkland with identified funding
  • Developers incorporate parks into development
  • Linked waterways for boating
  • Horse trails

Habitat and Wildlife

  • Use native plantings as much as possible throughout the town, library, along roadways (3 dots)
  • Preserve wildlife and its diversity and its habitats (6 dots)
  • Maintain and increase woodlands (7 dots)
  • Educated community on natural ways to preserve environment (3 dots)
  • Balance wildlife protection and development
  • Maintain prairie look
  • Still seeing the hawks

Water Resources

  • Preserve the quality of flood plains, wetlands, and groundwater supply (aquifers) (7 dots)
  • Identify and protect groundwater recharge areas (3 dots)
  • Attractive, more natural, stormwater management (8 dots)
  • Natural looking retention ponds

Stragegies for Plan Implementation

The following are items from the February 24th discussions that will be incorporated into the process for developing strategies for plan implementation.

  • Comprehensive plan reflecting community's wants, fund values, core goals, mission (9 dots)
  • School system supports the community, is a resource
  • Reduce impervious surface (3 dots)
  • Comprehensive K-12 ecological curriculum with local component
  • Incentives to developers to preserve natural
  • Land donations for open space (2 dots)
  • Planned, managed, strategic growth (15 dots)
  • Control commercial development one place for commerce and industry (5 dots)
  • High quality integration development areas into natural environment (4 dots)
  • Attractive, environmentally sensitive community development (3 dots)
  • Land set aside from development to prevent complete build out
  • Control development mix - residential/commercial
  • Town is planned and looks like it
  • Promote conservation design
  • Respect property rights and environmental protection.
  • Obtain border agreement on west border
  • Zero population growth
  • Examine the impacts of regional transportation plans, e.g., I-355, Metra, Caton farm rd. (4 dots)
  • A diverse economic base to help control property taxes (4 dots)
  • Managed growth that does not negatively affect schools, other governmental units (4 dots)
  • Slow, balanced tax base growth
  • A sustainable village (development and taxes)
 

Conservation Design Workshop September 2, 2003

Excerpt from Green Vision Final Report, June 2004
Section 5.5, Conservation Design Workshop.

Stakeholders had voiced a preference for conservation design developments as indicated by keypad polling. Before approving objectives recommending conservation design developments, the stakeholders indicated they wanted more specific information about the costs and benefits of conservation design. A Conservation Design Workshop was arranged featuring environmental experts presenting model planning principles that are designed to conserve identified natural features within a context of sustainable development. Speakers explained how economic and environmental benefits are interrelated with site planning. They demonstrated that conservation practices provide positive community benefits such as minimizing storm water run off, improving water quality, preserving natural resources, enhancing marketability and decreasing development costs while increasing property values.

The workshop featured four main speakers:

  • Dennis Dreher, Northeastern Illinois Planninc Commission (NIPC).  
    Mr. Dreher explained how natural features can be protected within a context of sustainable development.
  • Bill Ward, Principal, The Cadmus Group, Inc.  
    Mr. Ward addressed the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality. He spoke about the regulatory requirements the Village will face under the NPDES Phase II Stormwater rule and the need to prevent water quality problems as the Village develops.
  • David Yocca, Director of Landscape Architecture and Planning, Conservation Design Forum.  
    Mr. Yocca explained how to integrate natural systems into new neighborhood and community developments in an ecologically sustainable way. He discussed a holistic approach to storm water management, soil health, natural landscapes, and "green" buildings and infrastructure. The presentation looked at three kinds of project examples: watershed scale; community/neighborhood scale; individual site or parcel scale.
  • Jeff Swano, Enviro Impact Solutions.  
    Mr. Swano addressed the economic impacts of conservation design. He compared construction and maintenance costs of conservation development versus traditional development.